Glossary of key terms related to Intellectual Property


a bundle of exclusive rights extended to an owner of an original work in the literary, scientific, and artistic domains. Copyright laws grant authors, artists, and other creators automatic protection for their literary and artistic works from the moment of creation and as such do not require registration for protection.

Industrial design

the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an article which gives special appearance to and serves as a pattern for a product. It covers three-dimensional (shape or surface of an article) or two-dimensional (patterns or lines of color) features. The subject of IDs ranges from fashion to industrial goods such as handicrafts, jewelry, vehicles, appliances, among others.

Madrid System

an international trademark application system that allows for a single filing for registration in multiple countries that are members to the system.


an exclusive right granted to an inventor of to exclude others from using, making/manufacturing, selling, and/or importing his or her patented product or solution for a period of 20 years from the date of filing. To be patentable, a product or process must be new, useful, and involves an inventive step that is not obvious to someone who has ordinary skill in the relevant field.

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)

a system of seeking patent protection in many or all of the 152 PCT contracting parties by filing just one application instead of multiple applications. Filing through PCT is simpler, easier, and more-cost effective compared to filing directly to each of the contracting states. PCT filings are provided with services such as international search, international publication, national phase, and other optional services such as supplementary international search and preliminary search examination.


a word, a group of words, sign, symbol, logo or a combination thereof that identifies and differentiates the source of the goods or services of one entity from those of others. If you have a business, distinguishing your goods or services from others gives you a competitive edge.

Utility model

a type of intellectual property protection that provides a shorter protection term of seven years compared to the 20 years of a patent. The registration process for a UM is less costly and shorter as it does not apply substantive examination to which patent filings are subjected.